Measuring Ice Properties with Helicopter-borne Instrumentation
Knowledge of sea ice properties is essential for safe navigation by fishing and commercial vessels and those involved in offshore oil and gas exploration as well as design and maintenance of offshore structures. Climatological variation of ice properties is integral to climate change and long-term knowledge of sea ice properties greatly enhances our understanding of this phenomenon.
Optical and radar satellite imagery provide information on concentrations of ice types and on ridging, but does not provide absolute ice thicknesses and the interpretation of imagery is often ambiguous. Fixed-wing aircraft and video cameras on helicopters provide concentration and surface roughness estimates, but precise measurements and positioning in real-time are lacking.
The advent of 1) an EM-induction system for measuring ice thickness from a helicopter-towed device; 2) a snow and ice thickness radar system for real-time snow and freshwater ice thickness measurements; and 3) a video-laser-GPS system for accurate measures of roughness and concentration.
All the new systems for measuring ice properties are currently being operated by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans as support to the Icebreaking Branch of the Canadian Coast Guard. The funding for instrument development was supplied by the Program of Energy Research and Development (PERD) of Natural Resources Canada. The measurement systems are meant to be mounted or towed on or from a helicopter for data recording while in flight. The helicopter-borne systems can be used individually or paired. All systems log the data on computers and show some real-time data in-flight to ensure that data are being logged. At base camp, the data can be processed quickly and e-mailed, as plots, to otehr users.
Since March 1996, the Ice Probe and IcePic have been used in experiments in the Gulf of St.Lawrence, in the Canadian Beaufort Sea, and off the Labrador coast to validate sea ice signatures seen in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images from Canada's satellite, RADARSAT, and to demonstrate how the ice probe could be used to help interpret RADARSAT imagery.
- Snow and Ice Properties and Coastal Ice Morphology Of the McKenzie Delta with helicopter-borne Sensors (PERD/CCTII Workshop Offshore Beaufort Sea Development 2007, Prinsenberg, Peterson, Holladay, and Lalumiere)
- Observing Pack Ice Properties with Helicopter-borne Sensors (PDF)
- Observing Pack Ice and Under-lying Runoff Buoyant Plume Properties with Helicopter-borne Sensors (PDF)
- Sea Ice Properties Observed With Helicopter-borne Sensors and ENVISAT ASAR Imagery over the Eastern Beaufort Shelf (PDF)
- slideshow of field work and results
- slideshow of ice thickness results (CASES 2004, Beaufort and the Gulf)
- Data Link
- Get some ice probe data
- Get ice probe viewers
- Formation of freshwater plume by shear ridges (CASES 2006, MacKenzie Delta)
- Identifying Ice Properties and Ice-Ocean Processes with ENVISAT imagery (Seasar 2006, Prinsenberg and Peterson)
- EM ice probe and Ice Pic
- Video-Laser-GPS sensor system
- snow and ice thickness radar system
- Confederation Bridge and the local ice regime
- Holladay J. S. 1995. Analysis of Electromagnetic/Laser Data Over the Newfoundland Shelf
- Peterson, I. K. and S. J. Prinsenberg. 1996. "Ice Drift and Electromagnetic Ice Thickness Measurements in the Gulf of St. Lawrence during the 1996 RADARSAT Validation Experiment"
- Prinsenberg, S. J., I. K. Peterson, and A. van der Baaren. 1996. "Comparison of Labrador Pack Ice Observations with RADARSAT Imagery during March 1996"
- Peterson, I. K., S. J. Prinsenberg, and J. S. Holladay. 1997. "Comparison of Electromagnetic Sea Ice Thickness Measurements with RADARSAT Imagery in the Gulf of St. Lawrence"
- Holladay, J. S., B. Lo, and S. J. Prinsenberg. 1997. "Bird Orientation Effects in Quantitative Airborne Electromagnetic Interpretation of Pack Ice Thickness Sounding"
- Holladay, J. S., R. Moucha, and S. J. Prinsenberg. 1997. Analysis of Electromagnetic/Laser Data over the Labrador Shelf 1994
- Lalumiere, L. 1998. "Snow and Ice Thickness Radar System"
- Holladay, J. S., R. Z. Moucha, and S. J. Prinsenberg. 1998. Airborne Electromagnetic Sea Ice Sounding Measurements During SIMMS'95
- Lalumiere, L. 1998. "Real-time Snow Radar System Field and Data Report"
- Moucha, R. Z., J. S. Holladay, and S. J. Prinsenberg. 1998. Airborne Electromagnetic Sea Ice Sounder Measurements of RADARSAT Validation Project 1996
- Prinsenberg, S. J., I. K. Peterson, and L. Lalumiere. 1998. "Contribution of RADARSAT Sub-pixel Scale Ice Properties to the SAR Backscatter"
- Prinsenberg, S. J., I. K. Peterson, and A. Maillet. 1998. "1997 Pack Ice Properties in Northumberland Strait"
- Holladay, J. S. and R. Moucha. 1998. Electromagnetic/Laser Ice Thickness Data from the Labrador Shelf, 1994
- Prinsenberg, S. J., I. K. Peterson, and L. Lalumiere. 1999. "Video/Laser Helicopter Sensor to Collect Pack Ice Properties for Validation of RADARSAT SAR Backscatter Values"
- Holladay, J. S. and S. J. Prinsenberg. 1999. Airborne Electromagnetic Sea Ice Sounding Measurements During 1997 Gulf of St. Lawrence Field Program
- Holladay, J. S. and S. J. Prinsenberg. 1999. Airborne Electromagnetic Sea Ice Sounding Measurements During 1998 Gulf of St. Lawrence Field Program
- Holladay, J. S. 1999. Airborne Electromagnetic Sea Ice Sounder Operational Sensitivity and Error Analysis
- Lalumiere, L., S. Prinsenberg, and I. Peterson. 2000. "Observing Pack Ice Properties with a Helicopter-Borne Video-Laser-GPS Sensor"
- Lalumiere, L. 2000. "Helicopter Hard-mounted Snow/Ice thickness System Field Trial Report"
- Peterson, I. K., S. J. Prinsenberg, and J. S. Holladay. 1999. "Using a Helicopter-Borne EM-Induction System to Validate RADARSAT Sea Ice Signatures"
- Peterson, I. K., S. J. Prinsenberg, J. S. Holladay, and L. Lalumiere. 2000. "Mapping Sea Ice Properties with a Helicopter-Borne Electromagnetic-Induction and Video System"
- Peterson, I. K., S. J. Prinsenberg, J. S. Holladay, and L. Lalumiere. 2000. "Mapping Sea Ice Thickness with RADARSAT and a Helicopter-Borne Electromagnetic-Induction System"
- Belliveau, D. J., H. Hayden, and S. J. Prinsenberg. 2001. "Ice Drift and Draft Measurements from Moorings at the Confederation Bridge"
- Prinsenberg, S. J. and I. K. Peterson. 2001. "Pack Ice Thickness and Concentration Measurements from the Area Around Confederation Bridge (Canada) Using Helicopter-borne Sensors"
- Prinsenberg, S. J., S. Holladay, and J. Lee. 2002. "Measuring Ice Thickness with EISFlowTM, a Fixed-mounted Helicopter Electromagnetic-laser System"
- Prinsenberg, S. J. and I. K. Peterson. 2003. "Comparing ice chart parameters against ice observations"
- Peterson, I. K., S. J. Prinsenberg, J. Hamilton, and R. Pettipas. 2008. "Variability of Oceanographic and Ice Properties of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago"
- Lalumiere, L. and S. Prinsenberg. 2009. "Integration of a Helicopter-Based Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) with a Laser, Video and GPS System".
- Holladay, S., S. Prinsenberg, and I. Peterson. 2010. "Measuring Arctic Nearshore Properties with a Multi-Frequency Airborne Electromagnetic Sensor".
- Prinsenberg, S. J. and Ingrid K. Peterson. 2010. "Observing regional-scale ice-atmospheric interaction processes with helicopter-borne sensors and moored Upward Looking Sonars"
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